# Channel Layer Specification¶

Note

Channel layers are now internal only to Channels, and not used as part of ASGI. This spec defines what Channels and applications written using it expect a channel layer to provide.

## Abstract¶

This document outlines a set of standardized definitions for channels and a channel layer which provides a mechanism to send and receive messages over them. They allow inter-process communication between different processes to help build applications that have messaging and events between different clients.

## Overview¶

### Messages¶

Messages must be a dict. Because these messages are sometimes sent over a network, they need to be serializable, and so they are only allowed to contain the following types:

• Byte strings
• Unicode strings
• Integers (within the signed 64 bit range)
• Floating point numbers (within the IEEE 754 double precision range)
• Lists (tuples should be encoded as lists)
• Dicts (keys must be unicode strings)
• Booleans
• None

### Channels¶

Channels are identified by a unicode string name consisting only of ASCII letters, ASCII numerical digits, periods (.), dashes (-) and underscores (_), plus an optional type character (see below).

Channels are a first-in, first out queue with at-most-once delivery semantics. They can have multiple writers and multiple readers; only a single reader should get each written message. Implementations must never deliver a message more than once or to more than one reader, and must drop messages if this is necessary to achieve this restriction.

In order to aid with scaling and network architecture, a distinction is made between channels that have multiple readers and process-specific channels that are read from a single known process.

Normal channel names contain no type characters, and can be routed however the backend wishes; in particular, they do not have to appear globally consistent, and backends may shard their contents out to different servers so that a querying client only sees some portion of the messages. Calling receive on these channels does not guarantee that you will get the messages in order or that you will get anything if the channel is non-empty.

Process-specific channel names contain an exclamation mark (!) that separates a remote and local part. These channels are received differently; only the name up to and including the ! character is passed to the receive() call, and it will receive any message on any channel with that prefix. This allows a process, such as a HTTP terminator, to listen on a single process-specific channel, and then distribute incoming requests to the appropriate client sockets using the local part (the part after the !). The local parts must be generated and managed by the process that consumes them. These channels, like single-reader channels, are guaranteed to give any extant messages in order if received from a single process.

Messages should expire after a set time sitting unread in a channel; the recommendation is one minute, though the best value depends on the channel layer and the way it is deployed, and it is recommended that users are allowed to configure the expiry time.

The maximum message size is 1MB if the message were encoded as JSON; if more data than this needs to be transmitted it must be chunked into smaller messages. All channel layers must support messages up to this size, but channel layer users are encouraged to keep well below it.

### Extensions¶

Extensions are functionality that is not required for basic application code and nearly all protocol server code, and so has been made optional in order to enable lightweight channel layers for applications that don’t need the full feature set defined here.

The extensions defined here are:

• groups: Allows grouping of channels to allow broadcast; see below for more.
• flush: Allows easier testing and development with channel layers.

There is potential to add further extensions; these may be defined by a separate specification, or a new version of this specification.

If application code requires an extension, it should check for it as soon as possible, and hard error if it is not provided. Frameworks should encourage optional use of extensions, while attempting to move any extension-not-found errors to process startup rather than message handling.

### Asynchronous Support¶

All channel layers must provide asynchronous (coroutine) methods for their primary endpoints. End-users will be able to achieve synchronous versions using the asgiref.sync.async_to_sync wrapper.

### Groups¶

While the basic channel model is sufficient to handle basic application needs, many more advanced uses of asynchronous messaging require notifying many users at once when an event occurs - imagine a live blog, for example, where every viewer should get a long poll response or WebSocket packet when a new entry is posted.

Thus, there is an optional groups extension which allows easier broadcast messaging to groups of channels. End-users are free, of course, to use just channel names and direct sending and build their own persistence/broadcast system instead.

### Capacity¶

To provide backpressure, each channel in a channel layer may have a capacity, defined however the layer wishes (it is recommended that it is configurable by the user using keyword arguments to the channel layer constructor, and furthermore configurable per channel name or name prefix).

When a channel is at or over capacity, trying to send() to that channel may raise ChannelFull, which indicates to the sender the channel is over capacity. How the sender wishes to deal with this will depend on context; for example, a web application trying to send a response body will likely wait until it empties out again, while a HTTP interface server trying to send in a request would drop the request and return a 503 error.

Process-local channels must apply their capacity on the non-local part (that is, up to and including the ! character), and so capacity is shared among all of the “virtual” channels inside it.

Sending to a group never raises ChannelFull; instead, it must silently drop the message if it is over capacity, as per ASGI’s at-most-once delivery policy.

## Specification Details¶

A channel layer must provide an object with these attributes (all function arguments are positional):

• coroutine send(channel, message), that takes two arguments: the channel to send on, as a unicode string, and the message to send, as a serializable dict.
• coroutine receive(channel), that takes a single channel name and returns the next received message on that channel.
• coroutine new_channel(), which returns a new process-specific channel that can be used to give to a local coroutine or receiver.
• MessageTooLarge, the exception raised when a send operation fails because the encoded message is over the layer’s size limit.
• ChannelFull, the exception raised when a send operation fails because the destination channel is over capacity.
• extensions, a list of unicode string names indicating which extensions this layer provides, or an empty list if it supports none. The possible extensions can be seen in Extensions.

A channel layer implementing the groups extension must also provide:

• coroutine group_add(group, channel), that takes a channel and adds it to the group given by group. Both are unicode strings. If the channel is already in the group, the function should return normally.
• coroutine group_discard(group, channel), that removes the channel from the group if it is in it, and does nothing otherwise.
• coroutine group_send(group, message), that takes two positional arguments; the group to send to, as a unicode string, and the message to send, as a serializable dict. It may raise MessageTooLarge but cannot raise ChannelFull.
• group_expiry, an integer number of seconds that specifies how long group membership is valid for after the most recent group_add call (see Persistence below)

A channel layer implementing the flush extension must also provide:

• coroutine flush(), that resets the channel layer to a blank state, containing no messages and no groups (if the groups extension is implemented). This call must block until the system is cleared and will consistently look empty to any client, if the channel layer is distributed.

### Channel Semantics¶

Channels must:

• Preserve ordering of messages perfectly with only a single reader and writer if the channel is a single-reader or process-specific channel.
• Never deliver a message more than once.
• Never block on message send (though they may raise ChannelFull or MessageTooLarge)
• Be able to handle messages of at least 1MB in size when encoded as JSON (the implementation may use better encoding or compression, as long as it meets the equivalent size)
• Have a maximum name length of at least 100 bytes.

They should attempt to preserve ordering in all cases as much as possible, but perfect global ordering is obviously not possible in the distributed case.

They are not expected to deliver all messages, but a success rate of at least 99.99% is expected under normal circumstances. Implementations may want to have a “resilience testing” mode where they deliberately drop more messages than usual so developers can test their code’s handling of these scenarios.

### Persistence¶

Channel layers do not need to persist data long-term; group memberships only need to live as long as a connection does, and messages only as long as the message expiry time, which is usually a couple of minutes.

If a channel layer implements the groups extension, it must persist group membership until at least the time when the member channel has a message expire due to non-consumption, after which it may drop membership at any time. If a channel subsequently has a successful delivery, the channel layer must then not drop group membership until another message expires on that channel.

Channel layers must also drop group membership after a configurable long timeout after the most recent group_add call for that membership, the default being 86,400 seconds (one day). The value of this timeout is exposed as the group_expiry property on the channel layer.

### Approximate Global Ordering¶

While maintaining true global (across-channels) ordering of messages is entirely unreasonable to expect of many implementations, they should strive to prevent busy channels from overpowering quiet channels.

For example, imagine two channels, busy, which spikes to 1000 messages a second, and quiet, which gets one message a second. There’s a single consumer running receive(['busy', 'quiet']) which can handle around 200 messages a second.

In a simplistic for-loop implementation, the channel layer might always check busy first; it always has messages available, and so the consumer never even gets to see a message from quiet, even if it was sent with the first batch of busy messages.

A simple way to solve this is to randomize the order of the channel list when looking for messages inside the channel layer; other, better methods are also available, but whatever is chosen, it should try to avoid a scenario where a message doesn’t get received purely because another channel is busy.

### Strings and Unicode¶

In this document, and all sub-specifications, byte string refers to str on Python 2 and bytes on Python 3. If this type still supports Unicode codepoints due to the underlying implementation, then any values should be kept within the 0 - 255 range.

Unicode string refers to unicode on Python 2 and str on Python 3. This document will never specify just string - all strings are one of the two exact types.

Some serializers, such as json, cannot differentiate between byte strings and unicode strings; these should include logic to box one type as the other (for example, encoding byte strings as base64 unicode strings with a preceding special character, e.g. U+FFFF).

Channel and group names are always unicode strings, with the additional limitation that they only use the following characters:

• ASCII letters
• The digits 0 through 9
• Hyphen -
• Underscore _
• Period .
• Question mark ? (only to delineiate single-reader channel names, and only one per name)
• Exclamation mark ! (only to delineate process-specific channel names, and only one per name)