# Consumers¶

While Channels is built around a basic low-level spec called ASGI, it’s more designed for interoperability than for writing complex applications in. So, Channels provides you with Consumers, a rich abstraction that allows you to make ASGI applications easily.

Consumers do a couple of things in particular:

• Structures your code as a series of functions to be called whenever an event happens, rather than making you write an event loop.
• Allow you to write synchronous or async code and deals with handoffs and threading for you.

Of course, you are free to ignore consumers and use the other parts of Channels - like routing, session handling and authentication - with any ASGI app, but they’re generally the best way to write your application code.

## Basic Layout¶

A consumer is a subclass of either channels.consumer.AsyncConsumer or channels.consumer.SyncConsumer. As these names suggest, one will expect you to write async-capable code, while the other will run your code synchronously in a threadpool for you.

Let’s look at a basic example of a SyncConsumer:

from channels.consumer import SyncConsumer

class EchoConsumer(SyncConsumer):

def websocket_connect(self, event):
self.send({
"type": "websocket.accept",
})

self.send({
"type": "websocket.send",
"text": event["text"],
})


This is a very simple WebSocket echo server - it will accept all incoming WebSocket connections, and then reply to all incoming WebSocket text frames with the same text.

Consumers are structured around a series of named methods corresponding to the type value of the messages they are going to receive, with any . replaced by _. The two handlers above are handling websocket.connect and websocket.receive messages respectively.

How did we know what event types we were going to get and what would be in them (like websocket.receive having a text) key? That’s because we designed this against the ASGI WebSocket specification, which tells us how WebSockets are presented - read more about it in ASGI - and protected this application with a router that checks for a scope type of websocket - see more about that in Routing.

Apart from that, the only other basic API is self.send(event). This lets you send events back to the client or protocol server as defined by the protocol - if you read the WebSocket protocol, you’ll see that the dict we send above is how you send a text frame to the client.

The AsyncConsumer is laid out very similarly, but all the handler methods must be coroutines, and self.send is a coroutine:

from channels.consumer import AsyncConsumer

class EchoConsumer(AsyncConsumer):

async def websocket_connect(self, event):
await self.send({
"type": "websocket.accept",
})

await self.send({
"type": "websocket.send",
"text": event["text"],
})


When should you use AsyncConsumer and when should you use SyncConsumer? The main thing to consider is what you’re talking to. If you call a slow synchronous function from inside an AsyncConsumer you’re going to hold up the entire event loop, so they’re only useful if you’re also calling async code (for example, using aiohttp to fetch 20 pages in parallel).

If you’re calling any part of Django’s ORM or other synchronous code, you should use a SyncConsumer, as this will run the whole consumer in a thread and stop your ORM queries blocking the entire server.

We recommend that you write SyncConsumers by default, and only use AsyncConsumers in cases where you know you are doing something that would be improved by async handling (long-running tasks that could be done in parallel) and you are only using async-native libraries.

If you really want to call a synchronous function from an AsyncConsumer, take a look at asgiref.sync.sync_to_async, which is the utility that Channels uses to run SyncConsumers in threadpools, and can turn any synchronous callable into an asynchronous coroutine.

Important

If you want to call the Django ORM from an AsyncConsumer (or any other synchronous code), you should use the database_sync_to_async adapter instead. See Database Access for more.

### Closing Consumers¶

When the socket or connection attached to your consumer is closed - either by you or the client - you will likely get an event sent to you (for example, http.disconnect or websocket.disconnect), and your application instance will be given a short amount of time to act on it.

Once you have finished doing your post-disconnect cleanup, you need to raise channels.exceptions.StopConsumer to halt the ASGI application cleanly and let the server clean it up. If you leave it running - by not raising this exception - the server will reach its application close timeout (which is 10 seconds by default in Daphne) and then kill your application and raise a warning.

The generic consumers below do this for you, so this is only needed if you are writing your own consumer class based on AsyncConsumer or SyncConsumer. However, if you override their __call__ method, or block the handling methods that it calls from returning, you may still run into this; take a look at their source code if you want more information.

Additionally, if you launch your own background coroutines, make sure to also shut them down when the connection is finished, or you’ll leak coroutines into the server.

### Channel Layers¶

Consumers also let you deal with Channel’s channel layers, to let them send messages between each other either one-to-one or via a broadcast system called groups.

Consumers will use the channel layer default unless the channel_layer_alias attribute is set when subclassing any of the provided Consumer classes.

To use the channel layer echo_alias we would set it like so:

from channels.consumer import SyncConsumer

class EchoConsumer(SyncConsumer):
channel_layer_alias = "echo_alias"


You can read more in Channel Layers.

## Scope¶

Consumers receive the connection’s scope when they are initialised, which contains a lot of the information you’d find on the request object in a Django view. It’s available as self.scope inside the consumer’s methods.

Scopes are part of the ASGI specification, but here are some common things you might want to use:

• scope["path"], the path on the request. (HTTP and WebSocket)
• scope["headers"], raw name/value header pairs from the request (HTTP and WebSocket)
• scope["method"], the method name used for the request. (HTTP)

If you enable things like Authentication, you’ll also be able to access the user object as scope["user"], and the URLRouter, for example, will put captured groups from the URL into scope["url_route"].

In general, the scope is the place to get connection information and where middleware will put attributes it wants to let you access (in the same way that Django’s middleware adds things to request).

For a full list of what can occur in a connection scope, look at the basic ASGI spec for the protocol you are terminating, plus any middleware or routing code you are using. The web (HTTP and WebSocket) scopes are available in the Web ASGI spec.

## Generic Consumers¶

What you see above is the basic layout of a consumer that works for any protocol. Much like Django’s generic views, Channels ships with generic consumers that wrap common functionality up so you don’t need to rewrite it, specifically for HTTP and WebSocket handling.

### WebsocketConsumer¶

Available as channels.generic.websocket.WebsocketConsumer, this wraps the verbose plain-ASGI message sending and receiving into handling that just deals with text and binary frames:

from channels.generic.websocket import WebsocketConsumer

class MyConsumer(WebsocketConsumer):

def connect(self):
# Called on connection.
# To accept the connection call:
self.accept()
# Or accept the connection and specify a chosen subprotocol.
# A list of subprotocols specified by the connecting client
# will be available in self.scope['subprotocols']
self.accept("subprotocol")
# To reject the connection, call:
self.close()

# Called with either text_data or bytes_data for each frame
# You can call:
self.send(text_data="Hello world!")
# Or, to send a binary frame:
self.send(bytes_data="Hello world!")
# Want to force-close the connection? Call:
self.close()
# Or add a custom WebSocket error code!
self.close(code=4123)

def disconnect(self, close_code):
# Called when the socket closes


You can also raise channels.exceptions.AcceptConnection or channels.exceptions.DenyConnection from anywhere inside the connect method in order to accept or reject a connection, if you want reuseable authentication or rate-limiting code that doesn’t need to use mixins.

A WebsocketConsumer’s channel will automatically be added to (on connect) and removed from (on disconnect) any groups whose names appear in the consumer’s groups class attribute. groups must be an iterable, and a channel layer with support for groups must be set as the channel backend (channels.layers.InMemoryChannelLayer and channels_redis.core.RedisChannelLayer both support groups). If no channel layer is configured or the channel layer doesn’t support groups, connecting to a WebsocketConsumer with a non-empty groups attribute will raise channels.exceptions.InvalidChannelLayerError. See Groups for more.

### AsyncWebsocketConsumer¶

Available as channels.generic.websocket.AsyncWebsocketConsumer, this has the exact same methods and signature as WebsocketConsumer but everything is async, and the functions you need to write have to be as well:

from channels.generic.websocket import AsyncWebsocketConsumer

class MyConsumer(AsyncWebsocketConsumer):

async def connect(self):
# Called on connection.
# To accept the connection call:
await self.accept()
# Or accept the connection and specify a chosen subprotocol.
# A list of subprotocols specified by the connecting client
# will be available in self.scope['subprotocols']
await self.accept("subprotocol")
# To reject the connection, call:
await self.close()

# Called with either text_data or bytes_data for each frame
# You can call:
await self.send(text_data="Hello world!")
# Or, to send a binary frame:
await self.send(bytes_data="Hello world!")
# Want to force-close the connection? Call:
await self.close()
# Or add a custom WebSocket error code!
await self.close(code=4123)

async def disconnect(self, close_code):
# Called when the socket closes


### JsonWebsocketConsumer¶

Available as channels.generic.websocket.JsonWebsocketConsumer, this works like WebsocketConsumer, except it will auto-encode and decode to JSON sent as WebSocket text frames.

The only API differences are:

• Your receive_json method must take a single argument, content, that is the decoded JSON object.
• self.send_json takes only a single argument, content, which will be encoded to JSON for you.

If you want to customise the JSON encoding and decoding, you can override the encode_json and decode_json classmethods.

### AsyncJsonWebsocketConsumer¶

An async version of JsonWebsocketConsumer, available as channels.generic.websocket.AsyncJsonWebsocketConsumer. Note that even encode_json and decode_json are async functions.

### AsyncHttpConsumer¶

Available as channels.generic.http.AsyncHttpConsumer, this offers basic primitives to implement a HTTP endpoint:

from channels.generic.http import AsyncHttpConsumer

class BasicHttpConsumer(AsyncHttpConsumer):
async def handle(self, body):
await asyncio.sleep(10)
("Content-Type", "text/plain"),
])


You are expected to implement your own handle method. The method receives the whole request body as a single bytestring. Headers may either be passed as a list of tuples or as a dictionary. The response body content is expected to be a bytestring.

You can also implement a disconnect method if you want to run code on disconnect - for example, to shut down any coroutines you launched. This will run even on an unclean disconnection, so don’t expect that handle has finished running cleanly.

If you need more control over the response, e.g. for implementing long polling, use the lower level self.send_headers and self.send_body methods instead. This example already mentions channel layers which will be explained in detail later:

import json
from channels.generic.http import AsyncHttpConsumer

class LongPollConsumer(AsyncHttpConsumer):
async def handle(self, body):
("Content-Type", "application/json"),
])
# Headers are only sent after the first body event.
# Set "more_body" to tell the interface server to not
# finish the response yet:
await self.send_body(b"", more_body=True)

async def chat_message(self, event):
# Send JSON and finish the response:
await self.send_body(json.dumps(event).encode("utf-8"))


Of course you can also use those primitives to implement a HTTP endpoint for Server-sent events:

from datetime import datetime
from channels.generic.http import AsyncHttpConsumer

class ServerSentEventsConsumer(AsyncHttpConsumer):
async def handle(self, body):