Getting Started with Channels

(If you haven’t yet, make sure you install Channels)

Now, let’s get to writing some consumers. If you’ve not read it already, you should read Channels Concepts, as it covers the basic description of what channels and groups are, and lays out some of the important implementation patterns and caveats.

First Consumers

When you first run Django with Channels installed, it will be set up in the default layout - where all HTTP requests (on the http.request channel) are routed to the Django view layer - nothing will be different to how things worked in the past with a WSGI-based Django, and your views and static file serving (from runserver will work as normal)

As a very basic introduction, let’s write a consumer that overrides the built-in handling and handles every HTTP request directly. This isn’t something you’d usually do in a project, but it’s a good illustration of how channels underlie even core Django - it’s less of an addition and more adding a whole new layer under the existing view layer.

Make a new project, a new app, and put this in a consumers.py file in the app:

from django.http import HttpResponse
from channels.handler import AsgiHandler

def http_consumer(message):
    # Make standard HTTP response - access ASGI path attribute directly
    response = HttpResponse("Hello world! You asked for %s" % message.content['path'])
    # Encode that response into message format (ASGI)
    for chunk in AsgiHandler.encode_response(response):
        message.reply_channel.send(chunk)

The most important thing to note here is that, because things we send in messages must be JSON serializable, the request and response messages are in a key-value format. You can read more about that format in the ASGI specification, but you don’t need to worry about it too much; just know that there’s an AsgiRequest class that translates from ASGI into Django request objects, and the AsgiHandler class handles translation of HttpResponse into ASGI messages, which you see used above. Usually, Django’s built-in code will do all this for you when you’re using normal views.

Now we need to do one more thing, and that’s tell Django that this consumer should be tied to the http.request channel rather than the default Django view system. This is done in the settings file - in particular, we need to define our default channel layer and what its routing is set to.

Channel routing is a bit like URL routing, and so it’s structured similarly - you point the setting at a dict mapping channels to consumer callables. Here’s what that looks like:

# In settings.py
CHANNEL_LAYERS = {
    "default": {
        "BACKEND": "asgiref.inmemory.ChannelLayer",
        "ROUTING": "myproject.routing.channel_routing",
    },
}
# In routing.py
from channels.routing import route
channel_routing = [
    route("http.request", "myapp.consumers.http_consumer"),
]

Warning

This example, and most of the examples here, use the “in memory” channel layer. This is the easiest to get started with but provides absolutely no cross-process channel transportation, and so can only be used with runserver. You’ll want to choose another backend (discussed later) to run things in production.

As you can see, this is a little like Django’s DATABASES setting; there are named channel layers, with a default one called default. Each layer needs a channel layer class, some options (if the channel layer needs them), and a routing scheme, which points to a list containing the routing settings. It’s recommended you call this routing.py and put it alongside urls.py in your project, but you can put it wherever you like, as long as the path is correct.

If you start up python manage.py runserver and go to http://localhost:8000, you’ll see that, rather than a default Django page, you get the Hello World response, so things are working. If you don’t see a response, check you installed Channels correctly.

Now, that’s not very exciting - raw HTTP responses are something Django has been able to do for a long time. Let’s try some WebSockets, and make a basic chat server!

We’ll start with a simple server that just echoes every message it gets sent back to the same client - no cross-client communication. It’s not terribly useful, but it’s a good way to start out writing Channels consumers.

Delete that previous consumer and its routing - we’ll want the normal Django view layer to serve HTTP requests from now on, which happens if you don’t specify a consumer for http.request - and make this WebSocket consumer instead:

# In consumers.py

def ws_message(message):
    # ASGI WebSocket packet-received and send-packet message types
    # both have a "text" key for their textual data.
    message.reply_channel.send({
        "text": message.content['text'],
    })

Hook it up to the websocket.receive channel like this:

# In routing.py
from channels.routing import route
from myapp.consumers import ws_message

channel_routing = [
    route("websocket.receive", ws_message),
]

Now, let’s look at what this is doing. It’s tied to the websocket.receive channel, which means that it’ll get a message whenever a WebSocket packet is sent to us by a client.

When it gets that message, it takes the reply_channel attribute from it, which is the unique response channel for that client, and sends the same content back to the client using its send() method.

Let’s test it! Run runserver, open a browser, navigate to a page on the server (you can’t use any page’s console because of origin restrictions), and put the following into the JavaScript console to open a WebSocket and send some data down it (you might need to change the socket address if you’re using a development VM or similar)

// Note that the path doesn't matter for routing; any WebSocket
// connection gets bumped over to WebSocket consumers
socket = new WebSocket("ws://" + window.location.host + "/chat/");
socket.onmessage = function(e) {
    alert(e.data);
}
socket.onopen = function() {
    socket.send("hello world");
}
// Call onopen directly if socket is already open
if (socket.readyState == WebSocket.OPEN) socket.onopen();

You should see an alert come back immediately saying “hello world” - your message has round-tripped through the server and come back to trigger the alert.

Groups

Now, let’s make our echo server into an actual chat server, so people can talk to each other. To do this, we’ll use Groups, one of the core concepts of Channels, and our fundamental way of doing multi-cast messaging.

To do this, we’ll hook up the websocket.connect and websocket.disconnect channels to add and remove our clients from the Group as they connect and disconnect, like this:

# In consumers.py
from channels import Group

# Connected to websocket.connect
def ws_add(message):
    # Accept the incoming connection
    message.reply_channel.send({"accept": True})
    # Add them to the chat group
    Group("chat").add(message.reply_channel)

# Connected to websocket.disconnect
def ws_disconnect(message):
    Group("chat").discard(message.reply_channel)

Note

You need to explicitly accept WebSocket connections if you override connect by sending accept: True - you can also reject them at connection time, before they open, by sending close: True.

Of course, if you’ve read through Channels Concepts, you’ll know that channels added to groups expire out if their messages expire (every channel layer has a message expiry time, usually between 30 seconds and a few minutes, and it’s often configurable) - but the disconnect handler will get called nearly all of the time anyway.

Note

Channels’ design is predicated on expecting and working around failure; it assumes that some small percentage of messages will never get delivered, and so all the core functionality is designed to expect failure so that when a message doesn’t get delivered, it doesn’t ruin the whole system.

We suggest you design your applications the same way - rather than relying on 100% guaranteed delivery, which Channels won’t give you, look at each failure case and program something to expect and handle it - be that retry logic, partial content handling, or just having something not work that one time. HTTP requests are just as fallible, and most people’s response to that is a generic error page!

Now, that’s taken care of adding and removing WebSocket send channels for the chat group; all we need to do now is take care of message sending. Instead of echoing the message back to the client like we did above, we’ll instead send it to the whole Group, which means any client who’s been added to it will get the message. Here’s all the code:

# In consumers.py
from channels import Group

# Connected to websocket.connect
def ws_add(message):
    # Accept the connection
    message.reply_channel.send({"accept": True})
    # Add to the chat group
    Group("chat").add(message.reply_channel)

# Connected to websocket.receive
def ws_message(message):
    Group("chat").send({
        "text": "[user] %s" % message.content['text'],
    })

# Connected to websocket.disconnect
def ws_disconnect(message):
    Group("chat").discard(message.reply_channel)

And what our routing should look like in routing.py:

from channels.routing import route
from myapp.consumers import ws_add, ws_message, ws_disconnect

channel_routing = [
    route("websocket.connect", ws_add),
    route("websocket.receive", ws_message),
    route("websocket.disconnect", ws_disconnect),
]

Note that the http.request route is no longer present - if we leave it out, then Django will route HTTP requests to the normal view system by default, which is probably what you want. Even if you have a http.request route that matches just a subset of paths or methods, the ones that don’t match will still fall through to the default handler, which passes it into URL routing and the views.

With all that code, you now have a working set of a logic for a chat server. Test time! Run runserver, open a browser and use that same JavaScript code in the developer console as before

// Note that the path doesn't matter right now; any WebSocket
// connection gets bumped over to WebSocket consumers
socket = new WebSocket("ws://" + window.location.host + "/chat/");
socket.onmessage = function(e) {
    alert(e.data);
}
socket.onopen = function() {
    socket.send("hello world");
}
// Call onopen directly if socket is already open
if (socket.readyState == WebSocket.OPEN) socket.onopen();

You should see an alert come back immediately saying “hello world” - but this time, you can open another tab and do the same there, and both tabs will receive the message and show an alert. Any incoming message is sent to the chat group by the ws_message consumer, and both your tabs will have been put into the chat group when they connected.

Feel free to put some calls to print in your handler functions too, if you like, so you can understand when they’re called. You can also use pdb and other similar methods you’d use to debug normal Django projects.

Running with Channels

Because Channels takes Django into a multi-process model, you no longer run everything in one process along with a WSGI server (of course, you’re still free to do that if you don’t want to use Channels). Instead, you run one or more interface servers, and one or more worker servers, connected by that channel layer you configured earlier.

There are multiple kinds of “interface servers”, and each one will service a different type of request - one might do both WebSocket and HTTP requests, while another might act as an SMS message gateway, for example.

These are separate from the “worker servers” where Django will run actual logic, though, and so the channel layer transports the content of channels across the network. In a production scenario, you’d usually run worker servers as a separate cluster from the interface servers, though of course you can run both as separate processes on one machine too.

By default, Django doesn’t have a channel layer configured - it doesn’t need one to run normal WSGI requests, after all. As soon as you try to add some consumers, though, you’ll need to configure one.

In the example above we used the in-memory channel layer implementation as our default channel layer. This just stores all the channel data in a dict in memory, and so isn’t actually cross-process; it only works inside runserver, as that runs the interface and worker servers in different threads inside the same process. When you deploy to production, you’ll need to use a channel layer like the Redis backend asgi_redis that works cross-process; see Channel Layer Types for more.

The second thing, once we have a networked channel backend set up, is to make sure we’re running an interface server that’s capable of serving WebSockets. To solve this, Channels comes with daphne, an interface server that can handle both HTTP and WebSockets at the same time, and then ties this in to run when you run runserver - you shouldn’t notice any difference from the normal Django runserver, though some of the options may be a little different.

(Under the hood, runserver is now running Daphne in one thread and a worker with autoreload in another - it’s basically a miniature version of a deployment, but all in one process)

Let’s try out the Redis backend - Redis runs on pretty much every machine, and has a very small overhead, which makes it perfect for this kind of thing. Install the asgi_redis package using pip.

pip install asgi_redis

and set up your channel layer like this:

# In settings.py
CHANNEL_LAYERS = {
    "default": {
        "BACKEND": "asgi_redis.RedisChannelLayer",
        "CONFIG": {
            "hosts": [("localhost", 6379)],
        },
        "ROUTING": "myproject.routing.channel_routing",
    },
}

You’ll also need to install the Redis server - there are downloads available for Mac OS and Windows, and it’s in pretty much every linux distribution’s package manager. For example, on Ubuntu, you can just:

sudo apt-get install redis-server

Fire up runserver, and it’ll work as before - unexciting, like good infrastructure should be. You can also try out the cross-process nature; run these two commands in two terminals:

  • manage.py runserver --noworker
  • manage.py runworker

As you can probably guess, this disables the worker threads in runserver and handles them in a separate process. You can pass -v 2 to runworker if you want to see logging as it runs the consumers.

If Django is in debug mode (DEBUG=True), then runworker will serve static files, as runserver does. Just like a normal Django setup, you’ll have to set up your static file serving for when DEBUG is turned off.

Persisting Data

Echoing messages is a nice simple example, but it’s ignoring the real need for a system like this - persistent state for connections. Let’s consider a basic chat site where a user requests a chat room upon initial connection, as part of the URL path (e.g. wss://host/rooms/room-name).

The reply_channel attribute you’ve seen before is our unique pointer to the open WebSocket - because it varies between different clients, it’s how we can keep track of “who” a message is from. Remember, Channels is network-transparent and can run on multiple workers, so you can’t just store things locally in global variables or similar.

Instead, the solution is to persist information keyed by the reply_channel in some other data store - sound familiar? This is what Django’s session framework does for HTTP requests, using a cookie as the key. Wouldn’t it be useful if we could get a session using the reply_channel as a key?

Channels provides a channel_session decorator for this purpose - it provides you with an attribute called message.channel_session that acts just like a normal Django session.

Let’s use it now to build a chat server that expects you to pass a chatroom name in the path of your WebSocket request and a query string with your username (we’ll ignore auth for now - that’s next):

# In consumers.py
import json
from channels import Group
from channels.sessions import channel_session
from urllib.parse import parse_qs

# Connected to websocket.connect
@channel_session
def ws_connect(message, room_name):
    # Accept connection
    message.reply_channel.send({"accept": True})
    # Parse the query string
    params = parse_qs(message.content["query_string"])
    if b"username" in params:
        # Set the username in the session
        message.channel_session["username"] = params[b"username"][0].decode("utf8")
        # Add the user to the room_name group
        Group("chat-%s" % room_name).add(message.reply_channel)
    else:
        # Close the connection.
        message.reply_channel.send({"close": True})

# Connected to websocket.receive
@channel_session
def ws_message(message, room_name):
    Group("chat-%s" % room_name).send({
        "text": json.dumps({
            "text": message["text"],
            "username": message.channel_session["username"],
        }),
    })

# Connected to websocket.disconnect
@channel_session
def ws_disconnect(message, room_name):
    Group("chat-%s" % room_name).discard(message.reply_channel)

Update routing.py as well:

# in routing.py
from channels.routing import route
from myapp.consumers import ws_connect, ws_message, ws_disconnect

channel_routing = [
    route("websocket.connect", ws_connect, path=r"^/(?P<room_name>[a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/$"),
    route("websocket.receive", ws_message, path=r"^/(?P<room_name>[a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/$"),
    route("websocket.disconnect", ws_disconnect, path=r"^/(?P<room_name>[a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/$"),
]

If you play around with it from the console (or start building a simple JavaScript chat client that appends received messages to a div), you’ll see that you can set a chat room with the initial request.

Authentication

Now, of course, a WebSocket solution is somewhat limited in scope without the ability to live with the rest of your website - in particular, we want to make sure we know what user we’re talking to, in case we have things like private chat channels (we don’t want a solution where clients just ask for the right channels, as anyone could change the code and just put in private channel names)

It can also save you having to manually make clients ask for what they want to see; if I see you open a WebSocket to my “updates” endpoint, and I know which user you are, I can just auto-add that channel to all the relevant groups (mentions of that user, for example).

Handily, as WebSockets start off using the HTTP protocol, they have a lot of familiar features, including a path, GET parameters, and cookies. We’d like to use these to hook into the familiar Django session and authentication systems; after all, WebSockets are no good unless we can identify who they belong to and do things securely.

In addition, we don’t want the interface servers storing data or trying to run authentication; they’re meant to be simple, lean, fast processes without much state, and so we’ll need to do our authentication inside our consumer functions.

Fortunately, because Channels has an underlying spec for WebSockets and other messages (ASGI), it ships with decorators that help you with both authentication and getting the underlying Django session (which is what Django authentication relies on).

Channels can use Django sessions either from cookies (if you’re running your websocket server on the same domain as your main site, using something like Daphne), or from a session_key GET parameter, which works if you want to keep running your HTTP requests through a WSGI server and offload WebSockets to a second server process on another domain.

You get access to a user’s normal Django session using the http_session decorator - that gives you a message.http_session attribute that behaves just like request.session. You can go one further and use http_session_user which will provide a message.user attribute as well as the session attribute.

Now, one thing to note is that you only get the detailed HTTP information during the connect message of a WebSocket connection (you can read more about that in the ASGI spec) - this means we’re not wasting bandwidth sending the same information over the wire needlessly.

This also means we’ll have to grab the user in the connection handler and then store it in the session; thankfully, Channels ships with both a channel_session_user decorator that works like the http_session_user decorator we mentioned above but loads the user from the channel session rather than the HTTP session, and a function called transfer_user which replicates a user from one session to another. Even better, it combines all of these into a channel_session_user_from_http decorator.

Bringing that all together, let’s make a chat server where users can only chat to people with the same first letter of their username:

# In consumers.py
from channels import Channel, Group
from channels.sessions import channel_session
from channels.auth import channel_session_user, channel_session_user_from_http

# Connected to websocket.connect
@channel_session_user_from_http
def ws_add(message):
    # Accept connection
    message.reply_channel.send({"accept": True})
    # Add them to the right group
    Group("chat-%s" % message.user.username[0]).add(message.reply_channel)

# Connected to websocket.receive
@channel_session_user
def ws_message(message):
    Group("chat-%s" % message.user.username[0]).send({
        "text": message['text'],
    })

# Connected to websocket.disconnect
@channel_session_user
def ws_disconnect(message):
    Group("chat-%s" % message.user.username[0]).discard(message.reply_channel)

If you’re just using runserver (and so Daphne), you can just connect and your cookies should transfer your auth over. If you were running WebSockets on a separate domain, you’d have to remember to provide the Django session ID as part of the URL, like this

socket = new WebSocket("ws://127.0.0.1:9000/?session_key=abcdefg");

You can get the current session key in a template with {{ request.session.session_key }}. Note that this can’t work with signed cookie sessions - since only HTTP responses can set cookies, it needs a backend it can write to to separately store state.

Security

Unlike AJAX requests, WebSocket requests are not limited by the Same-Origin policy. This means you don’t have to take any extra steps when you have an HTML page served by host A containing JavaScript code wanting to connect to a WebSocket on Host B.

While this can be convenient, it also implies that by default any third-party site can connect to your WebSocket application. When you are using the http_session_user or the channel_session_user_from_http decorator, this connection would be authenticated.

The WebSocket specification requires browsers to send the origin of a WebSocket request in the HTTP header named Origin, but validating that header is left to the server.

You can use the decorator channels.security.websockets.allowed_hosts_only on a websocket.connect consumer to only allow requests originating from hosts listed in the ALLOWED_HOSTS setting:

# In consumers.py
from channels import Channel, Group
from channels.sessions import channel_session
from channels.auth import channel_session_user, channel_session_user_from_http
from channels.security.websockets import allowed_hosts_only.

# Connected to websocket.connect
@allowed_hosts_only
@channel_session_user_from_http
def ws_add(message):
    # Accept connection
    ...

Requests from other hosts or requests with missing or invalid origin header are now rejected.

The name allowed_hosts_only is an alias for the class-based decorator AllowedHostsOnlyOriginValidator, which inherits from BaseOriginValidator. If you have custom requirements for origin validation, create a subclass and overwrite the method validate_origin(self, message, origin). It must return True when a message should be accepted, False otherwise.

Routing

The routing.py file acts very much like Django’s urls.py, including the ability to route things to different consumers based on path, or any other message attribute that’s a string (for example, http.request messages have a method key you could route based on).

Much like urls, you route using regular expressions; the main difference is that because the path is not special-cased - Channels doesn’t know that it’s a URL - you have to start patterns with the root /, and end includes without a / so that when the patterns combine, they work correctly.

Finally, because you’re matching against message contents using keyword arguments, you can only use named groups in your regular expressions! Here’s an example of routing our chat from above:

http_routing = [
    route("http.request", poll_consumer, path=r"^/poll/$", method=r"^POST$"),
]

chat_routing = [
    route("websocket.connect", chat_connect, path=r"^/(?P<room_name>[a-zA-Z0-9_]+)/$"),
    route("websocket.disconnect", chat_disconnect),
]

routing = [
    # You can use a string import path as the first argument as well.
    include(chat_routing, path=r"^/chat"),
    include(http_routing),
]

The routing is resolved in order, short-circuiting around the includes if one or more of their matches fails. You don’t have to start with the ^ symbol - we use Python’s re.match function, which starts at the start of a line anyway - but it’s considered good practice.

When an include matches part of a message value, it chops off the bit of the value it matched before passing it down to its routes or sub-includes, so you can put the same routing under multiple includes with different prefixes if you like.

Because these matches come through as keyword arguments, we could modify our consumer above to use a room based on URL rather than username:

# Connected to websocket.connect
@channel_session_user_from_http
def ws_add(message, room_name):
    # Add them to the right group
    Group("chat-%s" % room_name).add(message.reply_channel)
    # Accept the connection request
    message.reply_channel.send({"accept": True})

In the next section, we’ll change to sending the room_name as a part of the WebSocket message - which you might do if you had a multiplexing client - but you could use routing there as well.

Models

So far, we’ve just been taking incoming messages and rebroadcasting them to other clients connected to the same group, but this isn’t that great; really, we want to persist messages to a datastore, and we’d probably like to be able to inject messages into chatrooms from things other than WebSocket client connections (perhaps a built-in bot, or server status messages).

Thankfully, we can just use Django’s ORM to handle persistence of messages and easily integrate the send into the save flow of the model, rather than the message receive - that way, any new message saved will be broadcast to all the appropriate clients, no matter where it’s saved from.

We’ll even take some performance considerations into account: We’ll make our own custom channel for new chat messages and move the model save and the chat broadcast into that, meaning the sending process/consumer can move on immediately and not spend time waiting for the database save and the (slow on some backends) Group.send() call.

Let’s see what that looks like, assuming we have a ChatMessage model with message and room fields:

# In consumers.py
from channels import Channel
from channels.sessions import channel_session
from .models import ChatMessage

# Connected to chat-messages
def msg_consumer(message):
    # Save to model
    room = message.content['room']
    ChatMessage.objects.create(
        room=room,
        message=message.content['message'],
    )
    # Broadcast to listening sockets
    Group("chat-%s" % room).send({
        "text": message.content['message'],
    })

# Connected to websocket.connect
@channel_session
def ws_connect(message):
    # Work out room name from path (ignore slashes)
    room = message.content['path'].strip("/")
    # Save room in session and add us to the group
    message.channel_session['room'] = room
    Group("chat-%s" % room).add(message.reply_channel)
    # Accept the connection request
    message.reply_channel.send({"accept": True})

# Connected to websocket.receive
@channel_session
def ws_message(message):
    # Stick the message onto the processing queue
    Channel("chat-messages").send({
        "room": message.channel_session['room'],
        "message": message['text'],
    })

# Connected to websocket.disconnect
@channel_session
def ws_disconnect(message):
    Group("chat-%s" % message.channel_session['room']).discard(message.reply_channel)

Update routing.py as well:

# in routing.py
from channels.routing import route
from myapp.consumers import ws_connect, ws_message, ws_disconnect, msg_consumer

channel_routing = [
    route("websocket.connect", ws_connect),
    route("websocket.receive", ws_message),
    route("websocket.disconnect", ws_disconnect),
    route("chat-messages", msg_consumer),
]

Note that we could add messages onto the chat-messages channel from anywhere; inside a View, inside another model’s post_save signal, inside a management command run via cron. If we wanted to write a bot, too, we could put its listening logic inside the chat-messages consumer, as every message would pass through it.

Enforcing Ordering

There’s one final concept we want to introduce you to before you go on to build sites with Channels - consumer ordering.

Because Channels is a distributed system that can have many workers, by default it just processes messages in the order the workers get them off the queue. It’s entirely feasible for a WebSocket interface server to send out two receive messages close enough together that a second worker will pick up and start processing the second message before the first worker has finished processing the first.

This is particularly annoying if you’re storing things in the session in the one consumer and trying to get them in the other consumer - because the connect consumer hasn’t exited, its session hasn’t saved. You’d get the same effect if someone tried to request a view before the login view had finished processing, of course, but HTTP requests usually come in a bit slower from clients.

Channels has a solution - the enforce_ordering decorator. All WebSocket messages contain an order key, and this decorator uses that to make sure that messages are consumed in the right order. In addition, the connect message blocks the socket opening until it’s responded to, so you are always guaranteed that connect will run before any receives even without the decorator.

The decorator uses channel_session to keep track of what numbered messages have been processed, and if a worker tries to run a consumer on an out-of-order message, it raises the ConsumeLater exception, which puts the message back on the channel it came from and tells the worker to work on another message.

There’s a high cost to using enforce_ordering, which is why it’s an optional decorator. Here’s an example of it being used:

# In consumers.py
from channels import Channel, Group
from channels.sessions import channel_session, enforce_ordering
from channels.auth import channel_session_user, channel_session_user_from_http

# Connected to websocket.connect
@channel_session_user_from_http
def ws_add(message):
    # This doesn't need a decorator - it always runs separately
    message.channel_session['sent'] = 0
    # Add them to the right group
    Group("chat").add(message.reply_channel)
    # Accept the socket
    message.reply_channel.send({"accept": True})

# Connected to websocket.receive
@enforce_ordering
@channel_session_user
def ws_message(message):
    # Without enforce_ordering this wouldn't work right
    message.channel_session['sent'] = message.channel_session['sent'] + 1
    Group("chat").send({
        "text": "%s: %s" % (message.channel_session['sent'], message['text']),
    })

# Connected to websocket.disconnect
@channel_session_user
def ws_disconnect(message):
    Group("chat").discard(message.reply_channel)

Generally, the performance (and safety) of your ordering is tied to your session backend’s performance. Make sure you choose a session backend wisely if you’re going to rely heavily on enforce_ordering.

Next Steps

That covers the basics of using Channels; you’ve seen not only how to use basic channels, but also seen how they integrate with WebSockets, how to use groups to manage logical sets of channels, and how Django’s session and authentication systems easily integrate with WebSockets.

We recommend you read through the rest of the reference documentation to see more about what you can do with channels; in particular, you may want to look at our Deploying documentation to get an idea of how to design and run apps in production environments.